Following the success against the English at Haddon Rig in the August, James V gathered an army of ten thousand and sent them, under the command of Oliver Sinclair of Pitcairns, to push as far into England as they could.
Their advance was met at Solway Moss by Sir Thomas Wharton and his three thousand men. Although James V thought highly of Sinclair, it emerged that the nobles he was to command did not. Internal politics turned to in-fighting and even nobles leaving the field before the battle.
Among the foot soldiers, the Borderers reviewed their loyalty to a King who had persecuted them throughout his reign. Many regarded capture by the English favourable to death for a tyrant.
The battle, on 24 November, was uncoordinated and resulted in few deaths and twelve hundred prisoners, including the upstart Sinclair.
The King, who had waited, fled to Edinburgh. Henry VIII of England did not retaliate however, and James died a fortnight after the battle at Linlithgow.